AlChemy Papers

W. Fontana and L. W. Buss
What would be conserved if `the tape were played twice'?
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 91, 757-761 (1994)
[abstract] [US ps] [A4 ps]
reprinted in: "Complexity: Metaphors, Models, and Reality", George A. Cowan, David Pines, and David Meltzer (eds.), pp. 223-244, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1994.

W. Fontana and L. W. Buss
'The Arrival of the Fittest': Toward a Theory of Biological Organization
Bull. Math. Biol., 56, 1-64 (1994)
[abstract] [US ps] [A4 ps]

W. Fontana, G. Wagner and L. W. Buss
Beyond Digital Naturalism,
Artificial Life, 1/2, 211-227 (1994)
[abstract] [US ps] [A4 ps]
reprinted in: "Artificial Life: an Overview", Chris Langton (editor), pp. 211-227, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1995.

W. Fontana and Leo W. Buss
The barrier of objects: From dynamical systems to bounded organizations,
in: Boundaries and Barriers, J. Casti and A. Karlqvist (eds.), pp. 56-116,
Addison-Wesley, 1996
[abstract] [US ps] [A4 ps]
The tutorial appendices [A4 ps] on lambda-calculus (Appendix A), type theory (Appendix B) and proof-theory (Appendix C) can also be obtained with the main text as IIASA WP-96-027 [pdf] or as paper 41 from the Yale Center for Computational Ecology.

A digest of the above has appeared as: "On organization" in "The future of science has begun: Approaches to Artificial Life and Artificial Intelligence", Fondazione Carlo Erba, volume 4, pp. 23-40, 1996. [US ps] [A4 ps]